Definition

[1]
Antiphospholipid Syndrome is a syndrome where the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies is associated with thromboses, miscarriages and other pregnancy-related conditions.

Incidence

[2]
1-5% (30-40% in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)

Age

15-50 (mean age of diagnosis 34)

Gender

2-5 times more likely in females

Aetiology

Aetiology unknown

Risk Factors

[3]

Signs and Symptoms

[4]

History

[5]

Pathophysiology

[6]
Antiphospholipid antibodies target proteins such as prothrombin and phospholipids on platelets and monocytes. The exact mechanism is not understood but theories include
endothelial binding, protein C resistance and complement activation.

Prevention

[7]

Investigations

[8]

Bloods

Imaging

Diagnosis

[9]
Diagnosis is made based on at least one clinical criteria and at least on laboratory criteria (two positive tests at least 12 weeks apart)

Differentials to rule out

Management

[10]
Manage any complications

Pharmacological

Follow-up

Patients on warfarin should have regular INR tests done (aim for 2.5-3)
Patients should be encouraged to Maintain a healthy lifestyle, stop smoking, avoid prothrombotic medications such as oestrogens.
Patients should be educated about the signs and symptoms of blood clots such as oedema, leg pain, chest pain, confusion, or weakness and seek medical attention urgently.

Complications

[11]

Prognosis

[12]
The risk of recurrent thromboses is highly variable between patients.

See Also

BMJ Best Practice - Antiphospholipid Syndrome
  1. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  2. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  3. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  4. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  5. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  6. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  7. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  8. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  9. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  10. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  11. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html
  12. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/best-practice/monograph/469/follow-up/prognosis.html